Dr. Mustafa is a Founding Member of the Arab Academy of Sciences, a Corresponding Member of the Royal Academy of Overseas Science (Belgium), the Secretary of the UNESCO-EOLSS Joint Committee in Charge of the Encyclopedia of Life Support Systems and Editor-in-Chief of the UNESCO Science Report. Dr. El Tayeb holds an Engineering Diploma from St. Petersburg (Leningrad) Mining Institute, a Master and a PhD in Geophysics from Bordeaux I University in France. He started his career in 1974 as a mining engineer/ geophysicist at the Geological Survey Department of the Sudan. His work covered the utilization of geophysics to civil engineering works, engineering geology and the exploration of mineral resources in the various regions of the country. Between 1976 and 1980 he worked as a researcher in the Red Sea. His research covered areas such as marine seismic reflection, airborne gravity and magnetic surveys of the central Red Sea, development and adaptation of the shallow water seismic techniques to deep-sea research. Dr. El Tayeb joined UNESCO in 1981 as a programme specialist in charge of the development scientific research and higher education in the Arab region. 1986, Dr. El Tayeb assumed the post of the Chief of Section responsible for Arab States and then became responsible for both Arab States and Africa Sections. During this period he supervised the development of a number of national S&T plans and projects. Between 1989 and 1996 he worked as the Chief of Development Analysis and Operations. His functions included assistance to UNESCO Member States in formulating science policies, strategies as well as the development of partnerships between universities and industries and the evaluation of higher education institutions and universities. In 1996 Dr. El Tayeb was appointed Director of the Division of Policy Analysis & Operations of UNESCO and given the task of building UNESCO’s capacity in this area. Since then UNESCO reinstated the programme of science technology and innovation policies. The Division of Science Analysis & Policies launched an ambitious programme of assistance to member States in the evaluation of their national systems of innovation. Several International/regional conferences, workshops and symposia were organized to disseminate best practices in this area.